image industrial radiography

What are radioactive sources for industrial NDT?

Table 1-5 shows various radioactive sources for industrial NDT. The most commonly
used ones are Cobalt, Iridium and increasingly Selenium. Seleneum is very attractive
while it permits lighter containers than Iridium. Due to its average energy level it often is
a good alternative for an X-ray tube, also attractive while no electricity is needed.

Average energy level (nominal value):
The spectrum of a source has one or more energy lines, as shown in figure 2-2. For sources
with multiple energy lines an average energy level is assumed, the so-called nominal value.

On the basis of these spectra data it is clear that Co60, CS137 and Ir192 sources produce high-energy radiation and are therefore well suited to irradiate thick materials.

Yb169, on the other hand, is a source that produces relatively soft radiation and is of a very small size (0.5 mm), which makes it particularly suitable for radiographic examination of circumferential welds in pipes of a small diameter and thin wall thickness, with the source centrally positioned so that the weld can be exposed uniformly in one exposure, as shown in figure 8-5.

How are high-energy X-ray installations operated?

Radioactive sources Table
Radiation spectra and nominal values
Ytterbium169 source